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Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

The pupil can calculate mentally, using efficient strategies such as manipulating expressions using commutative and distributive properties to simplify the calculation (e.g. 53 – 82 + 47 = 53 + 47 – 82 = 100 – 82 = 18; 20 × 7 × 5 = 20 × 5 × 7 = 100 × 7 = 700; 53 ÷ 7 + 3 ÷ 7 = (53 +3) ÷ 7 = 56 ÷ 7 = 8).

The pupil can use formal methods to solve multi-step problems (e.g. find the change from £20 for three items that cost £1.24, £7.92 and £2.55; a roll of material is 6m long: how much is left when 5 pieces of 1.15m are cut from the roll?; a bottle of drink is 1.5 litres, how many cups of 175ml can be filled from the bottle, and how much drink is left?).


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